Búlandshöfði is a famous geology locality in Iceland, because it is one of the few places where you can find marine and fossil-bearing sediments. You pull off route 54 and park beside the road on the ocean side (“park” on map). Hike across the road and up the hill. You are climbing up through the Tertiary basalt formation. When you reach the top of the Tertiary basalts (“Tertiary” on map) then you will enter the sediment series. The top surface of the Tertiary basalts is polished by the ice age glaciers. Continue up to the lip of the hill past a small cairn. Now a lovely small and green valley opens up in front of you. Continue into the valley, towards the small stream. Here you will find the best section of the sediments (“sed” on map). These are mudstone and claystone, with small mollusc shells and white shell fragments. Do not remove these, please! This sediment is about one million years in age. Also notice the numerous rounded boulders in the claystone. These are dropstones, i.e. stones that were carried by sea ice and dropped to the sea floor when the ice melted while the sediments were forming. Also not light grey rocks and boulders that are granophyre (microgranite) and totally different from the basalt boulders. The granophyre boulders are from an intrusion that occurs to the southwest of here, and it is about 3.4 million years in age. Continue up hill through the sediments, which are conglomerates and tillites in the upper part, until you come to the location marked “worm” on the map. Here you will find a siltstone with interesting markings. Some are small vertical holes left after worms that were burrowing in the sediment. Other markings are also vertical, much larger, and created by burrowing molluscs. These are a reminder to us that even the upper part of the sediment formation is still marine in origin. Explore here and then follow the base of the cliff to the left, towards the waterfall (“falls” on map). There is a well defined deposit that creates the waterfall. It is a conglomerate and sandstone formation, that is composed of two beds. The lower beds are steeply dipping to the southwest, whereas the upper beds are nearly horizontal. This is a river delta sequence, with typical bottomset and topset beds. Continue across the little stream and return down off the mountain to your vehicle after further exploration.